What is BIOMETRICS? What are different biometric Identifiers?

The term *BIOMETRICS* has been derived from two different words

a) *BIO* means life, and

b) *METRICS* means measurements. Summing up, we can define Biometrics as measurement of the biological and physiological characteristics.
Biometric Identification is any means by which a person can be uniquely identified by evaluating one or more distinguishing biological traits. Unique identifiers include


Hand geometry,

Earlobe geometry,

Retina scan,

Iris scan,

Denture’s pattern,


Signatures, etc.
Of the above biometric identifiers, fingerprints are regarded as the oldest form.

*Fingerprints* are easily obtained, stored and searched due to the *FINGERPRINT CLASSIFICATION FORMULA* also known as *Henry Classification* devised by the team of *Sir E R Henry,  Aziz-ul-Haque and Hem Chandra Bose*. The first official use of fingerprints for police investigation started with the establishment of *FIRST FINGER PRINT BUREAU* of the world on 12th June, 1897 in the *Writer’s Building, Calcutta(now Kolkata)*.

*Iris and retina-pattern* authentication methods are already employed for making our unique Identification card *AADHAR CARD*.

*Voice waveform* recognition, a method of verification that has been used for many years with tape recordings in telephone wiretaps, is now being used for access to proprietary databanks in research facilities.

*Facial-recognition* technology has been used by law enforcement to pick out individuals in large crowds with considerable reliability.
*Hand geometry* is being used in industry to provide physical access to buildings.
Earlobe geometry has been used to disprove the identity of individuals who claim to be someone they are not (identity theft).
Signature comparison, another biometric identifiers,  is not as reliable, all by itself, as the other biometric Identification methods but offers an extra layer of verification when used in conjunction with one or more other methods.
No matter what biometric methodology is used, the identification verification process remains the same. A record of a person’s unique characteristic is captured and kept in a database. Later on, when identification verification is required, a new record is captured and compared with the previous record in the database. If the data in the new record matches that in the database record, the person’s identity is confirmed.

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