The word Dermatoglyphics has been derived from ancient Greek language derma=skin and glyph=carving.
Therefore, Dermoglyphic is the scientific study of fingerprints, lines, mounts, and shapes of hands. Dermatoglyphics refers to the formation of naturally occurring ridges on certain body parts, namely palms, fingers, soles and toes. The first phallange of every finger have a particular pattern of ridges in its bulbular area which is permanent and unique for that finger.
Jan Evangelista Purkyně1787-1869) was a Czech anatomist and physiologist. He classified the fingerprints patterns into nine groups.
He was one of the best known scientists of his time.
Sir Francis Galton(1822-1911), who is also regarded as the “FATHER OF FINGERPRINTS” classified the ridge patterns appearing on fingers into three major groups. These were:-
2) LOOPS; and
The ALW groupings were given through his book ‘FINGER PRINTS‘.
These groups were further sub-divided into:-
CENTRAL POCKET LOOP( ALSO CALLED PEACOCK EYE LOOP)
Dr. Harold Cummins(1894-1976) studied all aspects of fingerprint analysis, anthropology, genetics, embryology, hand oddities, etc. He brought together the diverse work of other pioneers, added many new research works to fingerprints. Dermatoglyphics is one of the new field brought to the fore by Harold Cummins.
Dr Harrold Cummins (1894-1976)
He classified the fingerprint patterns into 39 sub types.
He also established link between dermatoglyphics and genetic abnormalities to diagnose some congenial malfunctions. He has tried to explain these in his book “FINGER PRINTS, PALMS & SOLES” some of the diseases like
Cri du chat
Trisomy 13(Pata Syndrome)
Trisomy 18 (Edward Syndrome)
Trisomy 21(Down Syndrome)