THE FORGOTTEN INDIAN PIONEERS OF FINGERPRINT SCIENCE.
Many pioneers including Sir Francis Galton, Dr. Henry Faulds, Sir William Herschel, Sir Edward Richard Henry, etc contributed towards advancement of fingerprint science. But the present status of the fingerprint science could not have been achieved without the contribution of two Indian Police Officers, namely Azizul Haque and Hem Chandra Bose. Both these officers were at that time attached to the Anthropometric Bureau under the supervision of Edward Richard Henry, the IGP.
The famous Henry Classification of the fingerprints was actually worked out by the duo and on that basis the first FINGERPRINT BUREAU of the world was established on 12th June, 1897 in the Writer’s Building, Calcutta (now Kolkata) displacing the then Anthropometric Bureau.
Azizul Haque studied science and maths from the Presidency College, Calcutta and due to his acumen in maths, along side working in the Anthropometric Bureau, he developed a FINGER PRINTS CLASSIFICATION FORMULA. The new Classification formula was very easy to understand and implement. The whole record of the fingerprints was classified and recorded / placed in 1024 ‘pigeon holes’. These ‘pigeon holes’ were the Primary Classification given to the ten print slips according to the value given to the type of fingerprint pattern and the finger on which it is located. This primary classification started from 1/1 to 32/32.
So, 32/32 primary which was the last primary devised by Azizul Haque, we required 32×32=1024 pigeon holes.
Bose complemented it by devising a *telegraphic code system* for fingerprints. The research done by Azizul Haque and Hem Chandra Bose were presented before Imperial Committee by Edward Richard Henry, their boss at Anthropometric Bureau.
On 12th June, 1897, Anthropometric Bureau was converted into world’s first FINGER PRINT BUREAU at WRITER’S BUILDING, CALCUTTA(now KOLKATA).
Later on, due to their contribution, Azizul Haque was honoured with the title of KHAN BAHADUR and Hem Chandra Bose with the title of RAI BAHADUR.
It is still not confirmed whether they got any cash rewards or Jagir(land allotment) alongwith the titles they were honoured with.