FINGERPRINTS are the impressions of the first phallange of fingers on some surface by whatsoever medium, i.e. whether it is printer’s ink, stamp pad ink, greese, blood, paint, oil, mud, etc. 

The bulbular portion of human hand and fingers have epidermal ridges which is made by fusion of epidermal units. Each epidermal unit have a sweat pore. Between two ridges is a valley like structure which is known as furrow in the forensic parlance. The ridges flow from one end to the other end of the bulbular area of the finger. 

The ridges start developing from the 12th week of embryonic stage during pregnancy and fully developed by the 25th week. These ridges have two main principles.

1. PERSISTENTCY OR PERMANENCY :-                They are permanent from womb to               tomb.

2. UNIQUENESS :- No two finger                           impressions are identical until and               unless they are made by the same                  finger of the same person.

The ridges are formed due to the lateral pressure from outside on the womb. However, in some cases, may be one in four(4) million people it may occur that the person being fingerprinted isn’t having any ridges or fingerprint patterns. 

There are some persons who do not disclose any decipherable fingerprints. The ridges are fused or flattened and does not bear any pattern.

There are three main  genetic conditions which can prevent fingerprints from forming. They are :-

1.   Naegeli-Franceschetti-Jadassohn syndrome (NFJS),

2.   Dermatopathia pigmentosa reticularis          (DPR), and

3.  Adermatoglyphia

Besides, smooth fingers, NFJS & DPR have many other things.

Adermatoglyphia, on the other hand, has just one indicator: no fingerprints. It’s sometimes referred to as “immigration delay disease,” for the trouble it causes people trying to cross borders.
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