White Collar Crime

Being a forensic scientist, sometimes I get some relatives coming to my office and home to get help in their forensic matters. Forensic science itself is a very big field. The term ‘forensics’ can be added to any field involving crime, criminal and the law. Besides this, I am a serving forensic scientist specialist in Fingerprints with 32 years of experience. My unit i.e. Finger Print Bureau is attached to the Crime Branch, Delhi Police, India and the people around me usually come to me for advice in police matters too. Recently a friend of my son asked me to help in some ‘white collar crime‘ in which he and his organization was defrauded by his former employee of large amount of finances(embezzlement) and data theft(cyber crime). This boy KC(his name in acronym) was so devastated that he even tried to commit suicide as he feared bankruptcy of his organization. Though, not related to my field of expertise directly, being a police officer I advised him to take the help of a detective to locate that former employee so that he could be brought to law books. Whether, he succeed or not is yet to be seen. In the meantime I thought of apprising myself and the general public as to what constitute a ‘white collar crime’. 

White-collar crime refers to financially motivated nonviolent crime committed by business and government professionals. Within criminology, it was first defined by sociologist Edwin Sutherland in 1939 as “a crime committed by a person of respectability and high social status in the course of his occupation”.

TYPES OF WHITE COLLAR CRIME



Bank Fraud
: To engage in an act or pattern of activity where the purpose is to defraud a bank of funds.


Blackmail
: A demand for money or other consideration under threat to do bodily harm, to injure property, to accuse of a crime, or to expose secrets.


Bribery
: When money, goods, services, information or anything else of value is offered with intent to influence the actions, opinions, or decisions of the taker. You may be charged with bribery whether you offer the bribe or accept it.


Cellular Phone Fraud: 
The unauthorized use, tampering, or manipulation of a cellular phone or service. This can be accomplished by either use of a stolen phone, or where an person signs up for service under false identification or where the person clones a valid electronic serial number (ESN) by using an ESN reader and reprograms another cellular phone with a valid ESN number.


Computer fraud
: Where computer hackers steal information sources contained on computers such as: bank information, credit cards, and proprietary information.


Counterfeiting
: Occurs when someone copies or imitates an item without having been authorized to do so and passes the copy off for the genuine or original item. Counterfeiting is most often associated with money however can also be associated with designer clothing, handbags and watches.


Credit Card Fraud
: The unauthorized use of a credit card to obtain goods of value.


Currency Schemes: 
The practice of speculating on the future value of currencies.


Embezzlement
: When a person who has been entrusted with money or property appropriates it for his or her own use and benefit.


Environmental Schemes: 
The overbilling and fraudulent practices exercised by corporations which purport to clean up the environment.


Extortion
: Occurs when one person illegally obtains property from another by actual or threatened force, fear, or violence, or under cover of official right.


Forgery
: When a person passes a false or worthless instrument such as a check or counterfeit security with the intent to defraud or injure the recipient.


Health Care Fraud
: Where an unlicensed health care provider provides services under the guise of being licensed and obtains monetary benefit for the service.


Insider Trading: 
When a person uses inside, confidential, or advance information to trade in shares of publicly held corporations.


Insurance Fraud: 
To engage in an act or pattern of activity wherein one obtains proceeds from an insurance company through deception.


Investment Schemes
: Where an unsuspecting victim is contacted by the actor who promises to provide a large return on a small investment.


Kickback
: Occurs when a person who sells an item pays back a portion of the purchase price to the buyer.


Larceny/Theft: 
When a person wrongfully takes another person’s money or property with the intent to appropriate, convert or steal it.


Money Laundering
: The investment or transfer of money from racketeering, drug transactions or other embezzlement schemes so that it appears that its original source either cannot be traced or is legitimate.


Racketeering
: The operation of an illegal business for personal profit.


Securities Fraud
: The act of artificially inflating the price of stocks by brokers so that buyers can purchase a stock on the rise.


Tax Evasion: 
When a person commits fraud in filing or paying taxes.


Telemarketing Fraud: 
Persons operate out of boiler rooms and place telephone calls to residences and corporations where the person requests a donation to an alleged charitable organization or where the person requests money up front or a credit card number up front, and does not use the donation for the stated purpose.


Welfare Fraud
: To engage in an act or acts where the purpose is to obtain benefits (i.e. Public Assistance, Food Ration, or Medicaid) from the State or Central Government.


Weights and Measures: 
The act of placing an item for sale at one price yet charging a higher price at the time of sale or short weighing an item when the label reflects a higher weight.

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