A 3D scanner is a device that analyses a real-world object or environment to collect data on its shape and possibly its appearance (e.g. colour). The collected data can then be used to construct digital three-dimensional models. The 3D Scanners are being used for manufacturing of different products as well as being used by different agencies like fire department, metrology department, etc. These are basically used for constructions and productions because of their precision measurement data. Information provided by the 3D scanner can also be used in Entertainment industry for the production of movies and video games. Lately it has been introduced in forensics. In forensics, 3D scanner helps capture and store the digital 3 D view of the crime scene for long lasting documentation using LASER based accurate point cloud technology, provides diagramming tools, can create videos for court presentation, help analyze line of sight, blood splatter, bullet trajectories, reconstruction of crime scene, quick and easy measurements of evidential clues in relation to some fixed points, etc. Security area can be scanned and help the senior security officers evacuate the sensitive area for security and sniper deployment. Based on the input data of the scanned area in 3D view, evacuation and emergency exits can be planned.
Most of the European countries have been using 3D Scanners in their Law Enforcement Agencies. Any specific portion of the crime scene can be scanned for detailed crime Investigation process.
Evidences can be scanned in 3D view to have accurate measurements between any two reference points. The dimensions of the evidences can be accurately measured and documented even if the original evidences are displaced. The video of the crime scene can be digitally stored and documented in 3D view for any referral purposes in court cases. The digitally documented 3D view of the crime scene and evidences remain unaltered in the digital library of the police department almost for life time if preserved properly.
Application and Utilities:-
Crime scene and Forensic Investigation involves the use of scientific methods, physical evidences, deductive reasoning and their inter-relationships to gain explicit knowledge of the series of events that surround the crime.
How to select a good 3D Scanner
The LASER 3D Scanner should consist of the following:-
*Laser 3D Scanner with scanning radius of 450ft and more.
*Panoramic quick release
*Power Block Battery
*32GB SD card and card reader
*Scanner case for save transportation.
* WEIGHT:- Should be light. In any condition the scanner weight should not be more than 5 kgs.
* Scanner should have IP rating IP54 and above. IP(INGRESS PROTECTION) Rating defines level of sealing effectiveness of electrical/electronic enclosures against intrusion from foreign bodies(dust) and moisture. The numbers that follow IP each have a specific meaning. The first digit indicates the degree of protection from solid particles. The second digit indicates the protection level that the enclosure enjoys from various forms of moisture (drips, sprays, submersion, etc).
*Scanner should support remote operations using any mobile phone up to 80 metres distance.
*Scanner should be able to produce resolution from 100 – 160 megapixel colour.
*Scanner should have Axis compensator, height Sensor, electronic compass and integrated GPS and GLONASS for accurate position of crime scene.(GLONASS is an acronym, which stands for Globalnaya Navigazionnaya Sputnikovaya Sistema, or Global Navigation Satellite System). GLONASS is Russia’s version of GPS (Global Positioning System).
* The Scanners should have on-site registration for multiple scans and have a manual registration as opinion.
*Application should provide accuracy report of the scanned post registration.
*Application should have capability of generating bird eye view and other customisable view videos through scans of crime scene for court room presentation.
CRIME SCENE ANALYSIS SOFTWARE.
Software for scan visualization, measurements of scans, scan processing and registration of multiple scans for courtroom presentation and preparing video of point cloud data and distance analysis with Forensic Extension (plu-in) software with features for forensic analysis from the point cloud data for BLOOD SPLATTER analysis, BULLET TRAJECTORY analysis, suspect height analysis/identification, vehicle crash Investigation and impact analysis installed on central server.
Carbon Fibre Tripod Kit – It should be compact, light weight having quick release with panoramic disc for 3D Laser Scanner.
HAND HELD 3D LASER SCANNER
The scanner should be portable, having proper handgrip, with compatible Tablet. Hand held 3D scanner kit should consist of :-
1 Hand held portable 3D scanner with handle.
1Micro SD card
1 USB card reader
1 Calibration board
1 Crime Scene Analysis Software License (for capture and processing of scene in 3D)
* Hand held laser scanner should have a capture range on minimum 0.3mm.
* Resolution at short distance should be high.
* 3D Point Cloud accuracy should also be very high.
* Should have IP Rating of IP52 or above.
* Should support 24 bit colour texture.
* Weight of the scanner should not exceed 1 kg.
* Should have USB 3.0
* LASER power should be maximum 800MW with pulse duration of less than 10 ms at 798-821 nm wavelength.
TABLET SURFACE PRO 3 including charger. System requirements for processing tablet should have i5 processor with min 256GB HDD and 8GB RAM and should have professional Windows 8 or later versions.
3D SCANNER MANUFACTURERS
1. SURPHASER 3D LASER SCANNING BY BASIS SOFTWARE INC.
4. 3D DIGITAL CORP
5. MAPTEK. I-SITE 8000 SERIES WITH IP65
6. METROLOGIC INSTRUMENTS INC – Experts in barcode scanning and high
Speed automated data capture using LASER, Holographic and vision-based technologies.
7. Nextengine 3 D scanner
8. Shape Grabber Industrial 3D scanner
9. Leica Geosystems
11. STEINBICHLER T-SCAN CS
13. ZEISS – Used for designing, rapid manufacturing, quality control/inspection and reverse engineering.